↑ Return to Izdanja 2016 godine

Zaštita Materijala 3. 2016

 

Ivan Juranić*

University of Belgrade,  Faculty of Chemistry and Center for Chemistry IChTM, Belgrade, Serbia

Review paper
ISSN 0351-9465, E-ISSN 2466-2585
UDC:620.162/.163.oo1.5
doi:10.5937/ZasMat1603359J


Zastita Materijala 57 (3)
359 – 369 (2016)

Molecular descriptors as proxies for the modeling of the materials and their environmental impact

ABSTRACT

For the prediction of material’s properties and of interaction of molecules with the surroundings, one needs to know their properties. Usually, the molecular properties are revealed through experimental measurements. It can be a tedious, time-consuming, and costly work. On the other hand, computational chemistry readily generates a huge number of data which can provide various molecular descriptors. These can be various observable properties (bond lengths and angles, dipole moments, etc…), but also the unobservable properties (partial atomic charges, electronegativity, various latent variables ….).

There is an urgent need to develop accurate and economical screening tools that predict potential toxicity and environmental burden of various chemicals. Equally important is the design of safer alternatives.

Molecular modeling methods offer one of several complementary approaches to evaluate the risk to human health and the environment as a result of exposure to environmental chemicals. These tools can streamline the hazard assessment process by simulating possible modes of action and providing virtual screening tools that can help prioritize bioassay requirements. Tailoring these strategies to the particular challenges presented by environmental chemical interactions make them even more effective.

Advances in the fields of computational chemistry and molecular toxicology in recent decades allow the development of predictive models that inform the design of molecules with reduced potential to be toxic to humans or to the environment.

As an example we present the novel methodology for the computational evaluation of pKa values of various organic bases, based on calculation of partial atomic charges by a simple semiempirical QM method.

Keywords: computed molecular properties, molecular descriptors, QSAR/QSPR, partial atomic charges.

More>>>

 

Računarski generisani molekulski deskriptori kao proxi-ji za modelovanje materijala i njihov uticaj na okolinu

IZVOD

Za predviđanje osobina materijala i njihove interakcije sa okolinom, treba poznavati njihove osobine. Obično se osobine molekula otkrivaju eksperimentalnim merenjima. To može biti mukotrpan dugotrajan i skup posao. Sa druge strane, računarska hemija lako daje veliki broj podataka koji mogu da obezbede različite deskriptore molekula. To mogu biti razne merljive veličine (dužine i uglovi veza, dipolni momenti, i sl…), ali i nemerljive osobine (parcijalna atomska naelektrisanja, elektronegativnost, razne latentne varijable ….).

Postoji velika potreba za razvijanjem pouzdanih i ekonomičnih načina za  skrininge kojima se predskazuje potencijalna otrovnost i opterećenje životne okoline raznim hemikalijama. Jednako važan je i dizajn bezbednijih alternativa.

Metode molekulskog modelovanja nude jedan od nekoliko komplementarnih pristupa za procenu rizika za zdravlje ljudi i životne sredine kao posledicu izlaganja hemikalijama u okolišu. Ovim postupcima se može neprekidno vršiti procena opasnosti simuliranjem mogućih načina delovanja, a obezbeđivanje virtualnog skrininga  može pomoći u određivanju prioriteta kod bio-eseja. Ukrajanjem ovih strategija u određene izazove interakcija hemikalija i životne sredine može iste učiniti efikasnijima.

Napredak u računarskoj hemiji i molekulskoj toksikologiji postignut poslednjih decenija dozvoljava razvoj prediktivnih modela za racionalni dizajn molekula sa umanjenim potencijalom otrovnosti za ljude ili za životnu sredinu.

Kao primer predstavljamo novu metodologiju za računarsko procenjivanje pKa vrednosti različitih organskih baza na osnovu izračunavanja parcijalnih atomskih naelektrisanja prostim semiempirijskim QM metodom.

Ključne reči: izračunavanje osobina molekula, molekulski deskriptori, QSAR/QSPR, parcijalna atomska naelektrisanja.

Dalje>>>

 


 Slađana Č. Alagić1*, Dragana V. Medić1,Mile D. Dimitrijević1, Snežana B. Tošić2, Maja M. Nujkić1

1University of Belgrade, Technical faculty Bor, Bor, Serbia, 2University of Nis, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Department of Chemistry, Niš, Serbia

Scientific paper
ISSN 0351-9465, E-ISSN 2466-2585
UDC:663.2:634.8
doi:10.5937/ZasMat1603371A

Zastita Materijala 57 (3)
371 – 377 (2016)

Phytoremediation potential of the grapevine in regard to lithium

ABSTRACT

In this paper, the phytoremediation potential of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) cv Tamjanika in regard to lithium (Li) was investigated using chemical and statistical analysis, as well as the calculation of bioaccumulation and enrichment factors. Plant and soil material was collected from the Bor region. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that plants of the grapevine cv Tamjanika acted as exluders of Li which may candidate this plant species as a suitable choice for phytostabilization purposes. Its application in phytoextraction could not be estimated due to the fact that detected Li concentrations in the aboveground parts could not be considered as a real bioaccumulation. However, based on Li contents in unwashed aboveground parts (especially in leaves) it was possible to detect that particular part of Li load which came from the atmosphere, i.e. from the industrial facilities of the Copper Mining and Smelting Complex Bor which may point to their biomonitoring potential.

Keywords: grapevine; ICP-OES; lithium; phytoremediation; soil.

More>>>

 

Fitoremedijacioni potencijal vinove loze u odnosu na litijum

IZVOD

U ovom radu, ispitivan je fitoremedijacioni potencijal vinove loze (Vitis vinifera) cv Tamjanika u odnosu na litijum (Li), koristeći hemijsku i statističku analizu, kao i izračunavanje faktora bioakumulacije i obogaćenja. Biljni i zemljišni materijal bio je sakupljen u regionu Bora. Bazirano na dobijenim rezultatima, može se zaključiti da su se biljke vinove loze ponašale kao ekskluderi litijuma, što može kandidovati ovu biljnu vrstu kao pogodnu za svrhe fitostabilizacije. Njena primena u fitoekstrakciji nije se mogla proceniti, jer se detektovane koncentracije Li u nadzemnim delovima nisu mogle smatrati pravom bioakumulacijom. Međutim, na bazi sadržaja Li u neopranim nadzemnim delovima (a posebno u lišću), bilo je moguće detektovati upravo onaj sadržaj Li koji je došao iz atmosfere, tj. iz industrijskih postrojenja rudarsko-topioničarskog kompleksa Bor, što može da ukaže na njihov biomonitoring-potencijal.

Ključne reči: vinova loza; ICP-OES; litijum; fitoremedijacija; zemljište.

Dalje>>>

 


 

Ljiljana Avramović1*, Zoran Stevanović1, Mile Bugarin1, Radojka Jonović1, Radmila Marković1, Vojka Gardić1, Marko Jonovic2, Jelena Đorđević1

1Mining and Metallurgy Institute Bor, Bor, Serbia, 2University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade, Serbia

Scientific paper
ISSN 0351-9465, E-ISSN 2466-2585
UDC:631.421/.425(497.11)
doi:10.5937/ZasMat1603378A


Zastita Materijala 57 (3)
378 – 382 (2016)

Characterization of soil in the coastal area of the Bor River

ABSTRACT

Production process of copper obtaining in the Mining and Smelting Company (RTB) Bor directly affects the environmental pollution in Bor and surrounding area. Harmful elements present in the air are deposited on the surface and due to the effects of atmospheric precipitation penetrate into deeper layers of soil. On the other hand, in the area of RTB Bor activity, the significant pollution of rivers and soil are present in coastal area  due to the increased concentrations of present heavy metals. The Bor River is particularly endangered where the waste industrial and mining waste water flew for many years. The Bor River has become on time one of the most polluted rivers in Europe.

This paper presents the results of physico-chemical characterization of soil samples from the coastal areas of the Bor River. The following parameters were analyzed: moisture content, pH value, bulk density, specific gravity, grain size distribution, chemical composition, toxic characteristics -TCLP Method and leaching test – Method for characterization of waste leaching.

The obtained results indicate that the soil is contaminated with heavy metals and that a significant deviation from the permissible concentrations was found in particular for the following elements: Cu, As, and Pb. The soil in the coastal area of the Bor River belongs to the category of hazardous waste and the preventive measures are necessary in accordance with defined regulations.

Keywords: soil, characterization, Bor River.

More>>>

 

Karakterizacija zemljišta u priobalju Borske reke

IZVOD

Proizvodni proces dobijanja bakra u Rudarsko topioničarskom basenu (RTB) Bor direktno utiče na zagađenje životne sredine u Boru i okolini. Štetni elementi prisutni u vazduhu se talože na površini i usled dejstva atmosferskih padavina prodiru u dublje slojeve zemljišta. Sa druge strane u području dejstva RTB Bor prisutna su značajna zagađenja reka I zemljišta u  priobalnom prostoru usled povećanja koncentracije prisutnih teških metala. Posebno je ugrožena Borska reka u kojoj su se godinama ulivale otpadne industrijske I rudničke vode. Borska reka je vremenom postala jedna od najzagađenijih reka u Evropi.

U radu su dati rezultati fizičko hemijske karakterizacije uzoraka zemljišta iz priobalja Borske reke. Ispitivani su sledeći parametri zemljišta: sadržaj vlage, pH vrednost, nasipna masa, specifična masa, granulometrijski sastav, hemijski sastav, toksične karakteristike –TCLP metoda i test izluženja-metoda za karakterizaciju izluženja otpada.

Dobijeni rezultati ukazuju da je zemljište kontaminirano teškim metalima i da je utvrđeno značajno odstupanje od dozvoljenih koncentracija posebno kod sledećih elemenata Cu, As, i Pb. Zemljište u priobalju Borske reke pripada kategoriji opasnog otpada I neophodne su mere prevencije u skladu sa definisanom zakonskom regulativom.

Ključne reči: zemljište, karakterizacija, Borska reka.

Dalje>>>

 


 

Dora Ilić1*, Danka Radić2, Vera Karličić2, Jelena Jovičić-Petrović2, Dragan Kiković3, Blažo Lalević2, Vera Raičević2

1CMEPIUS (Center Republike Slovenije za evropske programe izobreževanja in usposabljanja), Ljubljana, Slovenija, 2Univerzitet u Beogradu, Poljoprivredni fakultet Beograd-Zemun, Srbija,  3Univerzitet u Prištini, Prirodno-matematički fakultet, Kosovska Mitrovica, Srbija

Naučni rad
ISSN 0351-9465, E-ISSN 2466-2585
UDC:631.46
doi:10.5937/ZasMat1603383I

Zastita Materijala 57 (3)
383 – 387 (2016)

Mikrobni diverzitet zemljišta kontaminiranog visokim sadržajem teških metala

IZVOD

Mnogobrojne industrijske aktivnosti, osim koristi za ljudsku populaciju, imale su za posledicu povećanje sadržaja teških metala i promene diverziteta živih organizama u životnoj sredini. Cilj ovog rada bio je ispitivanje uticaja visokih koncentracija teških metala na mikrobni diverzitet zemljišta. Istraživanja su obavljena na području bivše fabrike “Rog” (Ljubljana, Republika Slovenija), gde su uzeta četiri uzorka kontaminiranog zemljišta, dok je kontrolni uzorak predstavljao nekontaminirano zemljište. Ispitivanje mikrobnog diverziteta (brojnost bakterija, gljiva i aktinomiceta) obavljeno je primenom standardnih metoda. Rezultati istraživanja ukazuju da je brojnost mikroorganizama zavisila od lokacije i prusustva/odsustva kontaminacije. U kontrolnoj varijanti brojnost svih ispitivanih grupa mikroorganizama bila je veća u odnosu na ostale uzorke. Brojnost bakterija u kontaminiranim uzorcima iznosila je od 1,21-6,88×106 CFU/g, gljiva 1,08-30,30×103 CFU/g i aktinomiceta 302,15-381,82×103 CFU/g. U kontrolnoj varijanti broj bakterija iznosio je 17,45×106 CFU/g, gljiva 54,02×103 CFU/g i aktinomiceta 481,91×103 CFU/g. Ovi rezultati ukuzuju na značaj ispitivanja mikrobnog diverziteta na kontaminiranim lokacijama i predstavljaju osnovu za potencijalne aplikacije bioremedijacionih tehnologija na području bivše fabrike “Rog”.

Ključne reči: mikrobni diverzitet, kontaminacija, teški metali, bakterije, gljive, aktinomicete.

Dalje>>>

 

Microbial diversity of soil contaminated with high content of heavy metals

ABSTRACT

Except of benefits for human population, several industrial activities have a negative consequences i.e. increasing of  heavy metal content and changes in diversity of living organisms in environment.  The aim of this work was to examinated the influence of high content of heavy metals on microbial diversity of soil. Researches was conducted at locations of former factory “Rog” (Ljubljana, Republic of Slovenia), by taking of four samples of contaminated soil, while the control was uncontaminated soil sample. Determination of microbial diversity (abundance of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes) was performed using the standard methodology. The results of research showed that abundance of microorganisms depends on location and presence/absence of contamination. In control treatment abundance of all examinated groups of microorganisms was higher compared with other samples. The bacterial number in contaminated samples was from 1.21 to 6.88×106 CFU/g, the number of fungi was from 1,08 to 30,30×103 CFU/g, while actinomycetes number from 302,15 to 381,82×103 CFU/g. In control treatment, bacterial number was 17,45×106 CFU/g, fungi number 54,02×103 CFU/g and actinomycetes number 481,91×103 CFU/g. These results confirms the importance of microbial diversity research on contaminated locations and  potential applications of bioremediation technologies on locations of former factory “Rog”.

Keywords: microbial diversity, contamination, heavy metals, bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes

More>>>

 


 

Jelena Avdalović1*, Srdjan Miletić1, Mila Ilić1, Jelena Milić1, Tatjana Šolević Knudsen1, Aleksandra Djurić3, Dejan Nešković2, Miroslav Vrvić3

1University of Belgrade, Institute for Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade, Serbia, 2University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mining and Geology, Belgrade, Serbia, 3University of Belgrade, Faculty of Chemistry, Belgrade, Serbia

Scientific paper
ISSN 0351-9465, E-ISSN 2466-2585
UDC:628.112.036
doi:10.5937/ZasMat1603389A

Zastita Materijala 57 (3)
389 – 396 (2016)

Monitoring of underground water – necessary step in determining the method for site remediation

ABSTRACT

The object of this study was to investigate the quality of underground water on the location of heating plant “Novi Beograd” (Serbia). The examination included a system of 10 piezometers (P1, P5, P6, P7, P8, P9, P10, P11, P12, P13), which are constructed in two cycles (P1, P5, P6 and P13 are located at depth of up to 10 m, and P7 to P12 are located at depth of up to 15 m). Obtained results indicate that the area P5 to P8, as well as P12 and P13, has a concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons greater that the remediation value standardized as 0,6 mg/L. It was also determined that the total volume of the contaminated underground water is around 105.000 m3. All of the above indicates that it is necessary to start the remediation of underground water contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and that the most appropriate remediation procedure for this site is in situ bioremediation.

Keywords: underground water, remediation, petroleum hydrocarbon.

More>>>

 

Monitoring podzemnih voda-neophodan korak u utvrđivanju načina sanacije kontaminiranog lokaliteta 

IZVOD

Predmet ovog istraživanja je ispitivanje kvaliteta podzemnih voda na lokalitetu toplane “Novi Beograd” (Srdija). Istraživanjima je obuhvaćen sistem od 10 pijezometara (P1, P5, P6, P7, P8, P9, P10, P11, P12, P13), koji su konstruisani u dva ciklusa (P1, P5, P6 i P13 do dubine od 10 metara i od P7 do P12 do dubine od 15 metara).

Dobijeni rezultati pokazuju da je oblast u kojoj se nalaze pijezometri od P5 do P8, kao i P12 i P13, oblast u kojoj je koncentracija ukupnih ugljovodonika nafte veća od remedijacione vrednosti koja je normirana na 0,6 mg/L. Takođe, utvrđeno je da je ukupna zapremina kontaminirane podzemne vode oko 105.000 m3. Sve navedeno ukazuje da je neophodno pristupiti sanaciji podzemne vode kontaminirane ugljovodonicima nafte, kao i da je najoptimalniji postupak za navedeni lokalitet in situ bioremedijacija.

Ključne reči: podzemna voda, remedijacija, naftni ugljovodonici.

Dalje>>>

 


 

 

Dragana Kukić*, Marina Šćiban, Jelena Pejin,
Vesna Vasić, Jelena Prodanović

Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Tehnološki fakultet, Novi Sad, Srbija

Naučni rad
ISSN 0351-9465, E-ISSN 2466-2585
UDC:628.161.2.09
doi: 10.5937/ZasMat1603397K

Zastita Materijala 57 (3)
397 – 403 (2016)

Pivski trop kao potencijalni adsorbent za uklanjanje jona bakra iz vode

IZVOD

Primеnа biоlоških mаtеriјаlа zа uklаnjаnjе polutanata iz vоdе аdsоrpciјоm sе јоš nаzivа i biоsоrpciја, а tаkvi аdsоrbеnti biоsоrbеnti. Prеdnоsti biоsоrpciје nаd kоnvеnciоnаlnim mеtоdаmа su mnogobrojne, dok su niska cena i dostupnost materijala neki od osnovnih kriterijuma za odabir biosorbenata, pa su se u te svrhe kao predmet ispitivanja našli i nusproizvodi industrije i poljoprivrede. Jedan od najznačajnijih nusproizvoda proizvodnje piva je pivski trop, koji nastaje u velikim količinama tokom cele godine. Sa obzirom da je lignocelulozni materijal, ima i određeni adosrpcioni kapacitet za jone teških metala što je i ispitano u ovom radu. Ispitan je sastav pivskog tropa i izvedeni su šaržni ogledi adsorpcije jona bakra iz vode. Rezultati su pokazali da se adsorpcija odvija prema Langmuir-ovom modelu, te da je količina adsorbovanih jona po jedinici mase u intervalu karakterističnom za ovu grupu adsorbenata. Sa adsorpcionim kapacitetom od oko 12 mg/g, pivski trop se pokazao kao potencijalni biosorbent za praktičnu primenu u obradi otpadnih voda sa koncentracijama jona teških metala višim od dozvoljenih.

Ključne reči: pivski trop, adsorpcija, teški metali, bakar.

Dalje>>>

 

Brewer’s spent grain as a potential adsorbent of heavy metal ions from water 

ABSTRACT

Application of biological materials for removing pollutants from water by adsorption is also known as biosorption, and such adsorbents as biosorbents. Advantages of biosorption over conventional methods are numerous, but the low price and availability of materials are basic criteria for the selection of potential biosorbents. Therefore, by-products of industry and agriculture are the subject of many scientific investigations. One of the most important by-products of brewing industry is the brewer’s spent grain which is produced in large quantities throughout the whole year. As lignocellulosic material, brewer’s spent grain have a certain sorption capacity for heavy metal ions which is examined in this paper. The results of batch adsorption experiments showed the best fit for Langmuir model, and the amount of adsorbed ions per unit of mass of adsorbent is in the range typical for this group of adsorbents. With the adsorption capacity of about 12 mg/g, brewer’s spent grain proved to be potential biosorbent for practical application in the treatment of wastewater with concentrations of heavy metal ions higher than allowed.

Keywords: Beer trop, adsorption, heavy metals, copper.

More>>>

 


 

 

 

Brankica Majkić-Dursun*, Anđelka Petković,
Đulija Boreli-Zdravković

Institut za vodoprivredu „Jaroslav Černi“, Beograd, Srbija

Naučni rad
ISSN 0351-9465, E-ISSN 2466-2585
UDC:628.112.036(497.11)

doi:10.5937/ZasMat1603404

Zastita Materijala 57 (3)
404 – 411 (2016)

Potencijal korozivnosti aluvijalnih podzemnih voda u slivu Velike Morave

IZVOD

U prikazanom radu data je analiza agresivnosti podzemnih voda dva izvorišta (Ključ i Trnovče) u aluvijonu Velike Morave. Sračunate su vrednosti najčešće korišćenih pokazatelja korozivnog potencijala i stabilnosti vode: Langelierov-og indeksa zasićenja (LSI), Ryznarov-og indeksa stabilnosti (RSI), Larson-Skold–ov indeksa (LSkI) i Indeksa Agresivnosti (AI). U radu su dodatno analizirani parametri hemijskog sastava podzemnih voda koji imaju ulogu u procesima korozije. Na osnovu dobijenih vrednosti indeksa korozivnosti izvorište Trnovče karakterišu agresivnije podzemne vode u odnosu na podzemne vode Ključa. Prema vrednostima RSI 92,8% analiziranih uzoraka sa Trnovča i 84,2% sa Ključa  pokazuje korozivna svojstva. LSI u 82% uzoraka pod­zemnih voda Trnovča i 36,8% uzoraka vode sa Ključa pokazuje negativnu vrednost, odnosno ne mogućnost taloženja CaCO3 i korozivna svojstva. Vrednosti AI  ukazuju da je 67,8 % uzoraka u klasi umereno agresivnih voda, za razliku od Ključa gde ova svojstva pokazuje 26,3 % uzoraka.  LSkI indeks pokazuje da se ne može očekivati formiranje zaštitnog filma, odnosno vrednosti LSkI su značajno ispod granične vrednosti od 0.8. Velika tvrdoća vode karakteristična je za oba izvo­rišta, kao i povremeno povišene vrednosti kiseonika, mogu doprineti razvoju korozionih procesa.

Ključne reči: indeksi korozivnosti vode, aluvijalne podzemne vode, korozija, sliv Velike Morave.

Dalje>>>

 

Corrosion potential of alluvial groundwaters in Velika Morava river basin 

ABSTRACT

This paper discusses the corrosion and scaling potential of shallow groundwater from two aquifers (Ključ and Trnovče) in the VelikaMoravaRiver alluvium. Values of the most commonly used indicators, such as Langelier Saturation Index (LSI), Ryznar Stability Index, Larson-Skold Index and Aggressive Index were calculated to determine corrosion potential and stability. Additionally, the paper analyzes the psysico-chemichal parameters that impact corrosion processes. The calculated results show that Trnovče water source has more aggressive groundwater then -the Ključ water source. Based on the calculated RSI values, 92.8% of the samples from Trnovče and 84.2% of the samples from Ključ groundwater sources show corrosive potential. Calculated LSI shows that 82% of the groundwater samples from Trnovče and 36.8% of the samples from Ključ have negative values, which implies corrosive properties and inability to retain existing CaCO3. The Agressive Index indicates that 67.8% of the samples from Trnovče belong to moderately corrosive waters, unlike groundwaters from Ključ water source, where only 26.3% of the samples show these properties. The small calculated values of LSkI Index, which are significantly below the limit of 0.8, imply that protective layer (film) cannot be formed. High water hardness are characteristic for both water sources, also as periodically elevated concentrations of dissolved oxygen, could contribute to the development of corrosion processes.

Keywords: corrosion indices, scalling potential, aluviall groundwater, corrosion, Velika Morava river basin

More>>>

 


 

Olga Cvetković1*, Radmila Pivić2, Zoran Dinić2, Jelena Maksimović2, Snežana Trifunović3, Željko Dželetović4

1Univerziteta u Beogradu,NU Institut za hemiju, tehnologiju i metalurgiju, Beograd, Srbija; 2Univerzitet u Beogradu, Institut za zemljište, Beograd, Srbija; 3Univerzitet u Beogradu, Hemijski fakultet, Beograd, Srbija; 4Univerzitet u Beogradu, Institut za primenu nuklearne energije, Zemun – Beograd, Srbija

Naučni rad
ISSN 0351-9465,
E-ISSN 2466-2585
UDC:620.9

doi: 10.5937/ZasMat1603412C

Zastita Materijala 57 (3)
412 – 417 (2016)

Hemijska ispitivanja miskantusa gajenog u Srbiji – Potencijalni obnovljiv izvor energije

IZVOD

Delimičan odgovor stručne i naučne javnosti na pitanje kako povećati kapacitete energetskih izvora je upotreba biomase kao sirovine, kako iz ekonomskih, tako i iz ekoloških razloga. U ovom radu su prikazani rezultati fizičko-hemijskih ispitivanja biomase miskantusa (Miscanthus × giganteus Greef et Deu.), gajenog na teritoriji Republike Srbije, oglednom polju Instituta za primenu nuklearne energije, Zemun. Ispitivanjem količine pepela, elementarnog sastava biomase i kalorične vrednosti biomase (donje i gornje), koji su presudni za procenu kvaliteta biogoriva, ukazano je na mogućnost eksploatacije biomase miskantusa kao biogoriva. Prikupljanje uzoraka biljnog materijala za ovo istraživanje izvršeno je u dva žetvena roka: u jesen – vreme maksimuma biološkog prinosa i krajem zime, kada se dobija kvalitetnija biomasa za sagorevanje usled smanjenja sadržaja vlage i remobilizacije makro- i mikrohraniva iz nadzemnih delova rizoma. Vrednosti ispitivanih parametara pokazuju da biomasa ispunjava zahteve “zelene” energije, jer produkti sagorevanja biomase svojom količinom (oksidi N i S) ne bi ugrožavali postojeći kvalitet životne sredine, a količina nastalog ugljenik (IV) – oksida ne bi predstavljala ekološki problem, jer bi se dalje uključila u proces fotosinteze. Rezultati hemijskih analiza argumentovano ukazuju na veliki potencijal upotrebe biomase miskantusa kao biogoriva (obnovljivog izvora energije) u proizvodnji toplotne energije.

Ključne reči: fizičko-hemijska analiza biomase, miskantus, biogorivo, Srbija,”zelena” energija.

Dalje>>>

 

Chemical investigation of miscanthus × giganteus greef et deu. Cultivated in Serbia – a potential renewable source of energy 

ABSTRACT

According to scientific community and professional specialists, urging necessity to increase capacity of sources of energy can be partially achieved by using biomass as a raw material. This approach is justified by both economic and ecological reasons. In this paper the results of chemical study of the biomass Miscanthus × giganteus Greef et Deu. cultivated in the Republic of Serbia in the experimental field of the Institute for Application of Nuclear Energy in Zemun were presented. Study of an amount of ashes, elemental analysis of the biomass, and calorific value of the biomass (both higher and lower), which are critical parameters when estimating the quality of a biofuel, points out the possibility of utilization of the miscantus biomass as a fuel. Samples of the plant material for this study were collected during two harvesting periods: in the fall, when the biological yield is the highest, and at the end of the winter, when a highest quality biomass with respect to the combustion is obtained do to a decrease in moisture content and remobilization of the macro- and micronutrients from the above-ground parts of the plants to the rhizomes. Values of the studied parameters indicate that biomass meets the “green” energy requirements because the amounts of oxides of nitrogen and sulphur in the combustion products would not threaten current quality of the environment and the amount of carbon dioxide produced would be consumed in the process of photosynthesis. Results of the chemical analyses strongly suggest to a high potential of utilization of the miscantus biomass as a biofuel (renewable source of energy) to generate thermal energy.

Keywords: Physical-chemical analysis of biomass, Miscanthus × giganteus Greef et Deu., biofuel, Serbia,”green” energy

More>>>

 


 

 

Jelena Milojković*, Mirjana Stojanović, Marija Mihajlović, Zorica Lopičić, Tatjana Šoštarić, Marija Petrović, Jelena Petrović

1Institute for Technology of Nuclear and Other Mineral Raw Materials, Belgrade, Serbia

Scientific paper
ISSN 0351-9465, E-ISSN 2466-2585
UDC:631.461.7
doi: 10.5937/ZasMat1603418M

Zastita Materijala 57 (3)
418 – 423 (2016)

Pb(II) biosorption by selected waste biomass

ABSTRACT

Global concerns regarding environmental issues have required the evaluation of the waste biomass as potential biosorbents of heavy metals. This paper provides a review on using aquatic weed Myriophyllum spicatum and its compost and selected agricultural wastes: corn silk, peach and apricot stones as biosorbents of lead ions. These biomasses were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results of the studies on adsorbent efficiency of these bio wastes show that they apart from their wide availabilities are enriched with appreciable biosorption capacities. The paper also provides a critical view concerning future applications of this kind waste biosorbents in treatment of heavy metal contaminated water.

Keywords: lead, biosorption, waste biomass.

More>>>

 

Biosorpcija Pb(II) sa odabranom otpadnom biomasom

IZVOD

Zaštita životne sredine na globalnom nivou zahteva evaluaciju otpadne biomase kao potencijalnog biosorbenta teških metala. Ovaj rad daje pregled korišćenja vodenog korova Miriophillum spicatum i njegovog komposta kao i odabranog poljoprivrednog otpada: kukuruzne svile, koštica breskve i kajsije kao biosorbenata jona olova. Ove biomase su okarakterisane Skenirajućom elektronskom mikroskopijom (SEM). Rezultati studija o efikasnosti ovog bio-otpada pokazuju da pored široke dostupnosti ova otpadna biomasa poseduje i značajne biosorpcione kapacite. Ovaj rad pruža kritički stav za buduće primene ovakve vrste biosorbenata otpadnog porekla, u tretmanu otpadnih voda zagađenih teškim metalima.

Ključne reči : olovo , biosorpcija , otpadna biomasa.

Dalje>>>

 


 

 

Jelena Dragišić Maksimović1*, Miloš Mojović2, Vuk Maksimović1
1University of Belgrade, Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, Belgrade, Serbia, 2University of Belgrade, Faculty of Physical Chemistry, Belgrade, Serbia

Scientific paper
ISSN 0351-9465,
E-ISSN 2466-2585
UDC:632.122.13:635.63

doi: 10.5937/ZasMat1603424D


Zastita Materijala 57 (3)
424 – 429 (2016)

Silicon facilitates manganese phytoextraction by cucumber (Cucumis sativus l.)

ABSTRACT

The effect of excess nutrient levels of manganese (Mn, 50 and 100 mM) on the growth inhibition and the appearance of Mn-toxicity symptoms in the leaves was studied in cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Chinese long). Silicon (Si), when supplied as 1.5 mM silicic acid, clearly decreased symptoms of Mn-toxicity despite approximately the same total Mn content in the leaves. In treated plants, Si improves growth and biomass production compared with that of non-Si treated plants. Inert deposition of Si in the leaf cell walls of cucumber (a Si-accumulating species) enhanced cell wall stability. The mechanism of Si protection is proposed to act by Si-induced compartmentation of Mn hence increasing Mn2+-binding sites in the cell wall (e.g. Mn-silicate polymers) finally resulting in decreased toxic free Mn within the plant tissue rather than decrease of Mn uptake. These results suggest that Si nutrition can improve the phytoextraction potential of plants due to enhanced metal tolerance in leaf tissues.

Keywords: biomass, cell wall, EPR, Mn toxicity, phytoextraction, silicic acid.

More>>>

 

Silicijumom olakšana fitoekstrakcija mangana kod krastavaca (Cucumis sativus L.)

IZVOD

Efekat visokih koncentracija mangana (Mn, 50 i 100 mM) na inhibiciju rasta i pojavu simptoma toksičnosti mangana u listovima je ispitivan kod krastavca (Cucumis sativus L. sorta Chinese long). Silicijum (Si), kada je dodat hranljivom rastvoru kao 1.5 mM ortosilicijumska kiselina, jasno umanjuje simptome fitotoksičnosti mangana i pored sličnog ukupnog sadržaja Mn u listovima. U tretiranim biljkama, Si poboljšava rast i proizvodnju biomase u poređenju sa netretiranim biljkama. Deponovanje inertnog Si u lignifikovanim ćelijskim zidovima lista krastavaca (koji inače spada u Si-akumulirajuće vrste) povećava stabilnost ćelijskog zida. Predloženi mehanizam zaštite je Si-podstaknuta kompartmentacija Mn povećavanjem mesta akumulacije Mn2+ u ćelijskom zidu (npr. Mn-silikatni polimeri) što konačno rezultira smanjenjem toksičnog slobodnog Mn2+ u biljnom tkivu. Naši rezultati pokazuju da dodavanje Si u hranljivi rastvor može poboljšati potencijal biljaka za fitoekstrakciju usled povećane tolerancije metala u tkivima listova.

Ključne reči: biomasa, ćelijski zid, EPR, toksičnost mangana, fitoekstrakcija, silicijumska kiselina.

Dalje>>>

 


Aleksandar Došić1*, Božo Dalmacija2, Miladin Gligorić1, Dragana Tomašević-Pilipović2, Dunja Rađenović2

1Univerzitet u Istočnom Sarajevu, Tehnološki fakultet, Zvornik, Bosna i Hercegovina, 2Univerzitet u Novom Sadu, Prirodno-matematički fakultet, Novi Sad, Srbija

Naučni rad
ISSN 0351-9465, E-ISSN 2466-2585
UDC:628.336.17.3:622.794.3
doi:10.5937/ZasMat1603430D

Zastita Materijala 57 (3)
430 – 438 (2016)

Efikasnost neorganskih imobilizacionih agenasa u stabilizaciji otpadnih muljeva rudnika

IZVOD

Toksični metali, koji se nalaze u mulju jalovišta rudnika olova i cinka Sase, imobilisani su kompaktiranjem sa različitim imobilazacionim agensima (autohtona glina, crveni mulj) u monolite različitih proporcija. Efikasnost imobilizacionih postupaka praćena je korišćenjem difuzionog testa izluživanja (ANS 16.1). Takođe su, određeni i parametri (koeficijenti difuzije, indeksi izlužljivosti) koji će poslužiti za ocjenu efikasnosti prethodno primjenjenih imobilizacionih tehnika.

U tretmanu jalovine sa glinom i crvenim muljem se može uočiti smanjenje mobilnosti metala (Cr, Ni, As, Pb i Zn) sa povećanjem procenta dodatog crvenog mulja, dok kod Cu i Cd dolazi do odstupanja. Smeša jalovine sa glinom i crvenim muljem se pokazala kao veoma dobar imobilizacioni agens za sve ispitivane metale.

Ključne riječi: glina, crveni mulj, toksični metali, test izluživanja.

Dalje>>>

 

The efficiency of inorganic immobilization agents to stabilize tailings from the mine

ABSTRACT

Toxic metals , which are found in waste sludge from mine tailings of lead and zinc Sase , were immobilized with different compaction imobilazacionim agents (indigenous clay, red mud ) in the monoliths of different proportions. The efficiency of immobilization procedures was monitored using diffusion leaching tests (ANS 16.1). Also, certain parameters (coefficients of diffusion, leachability index) were determined to be used for evaluating the efficiency of immobilization techniques previously applied.

In the treatment of tailings with clay and red mud can be observed decrease in mobility of metals (Cr , Ni , As, Pb and Zn ) with an increase in the percentage of added red mud , while the Cu and Cd comes to deviations . A mixture of clay tailings and red mud proved to be a very good immobilization agent for all treated metals.

Keywords: clay, red mud, toxic metals, leaching test.

More>>>

 


Djurdja Kerkez1*, Milena Bečelić-Tomin1, Božo Dalmacija1, Dragana Tomašević Pilipović1, Miljana Prica2, Anita Leovac, Maćerak1, Nataša Slijepčević1

1University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sciences, Department for Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Section for Chemical Technology and Environmental Protection,  Novi Sad, Serbia, 2Universityof Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Novi Sad, Serbia

Scientific paper
ISSN 0351-9465,
E-ISSN 2466-2585
UDC:628.336.1/.8
doi: 10.5937/ZasMat1603439K

Zastita Materijala 57 (3)
439 – 448 (2016)

Treatment of pyrite cinder sludge after usage in dye degradation – Feasibility study

ABSTRACT

Over the last couple of years greener concept in hazardous waste management is gaining increasing relevance. This term refers to the processes and activities that have little or negligible impact on the environment. The aim of this study is to systematically quantify the physical and chemical properties of the solidified/stabilized (S/S) sludge generated in dye effluent treatment, when pyrite cinder is used as catalytic iron source in the modified heterogeneous Fenton process. S/S treatment was performed by using two clay materials (kaolinite and bentonite) and lime in order to immobilize Cu, Pb and Zn present in the sludge. Microwave assisted sequential extraction procedure was employed to assess potential metal mobility and risk to the environment. In order to determine the long-term behaviour of the S/S mixtures, the semi-dynamic ANS 16.1 leaching test was performed. S/S effectiveness was evaluated by measuring the cumulative fractions of leached metals, effective diffusion coefficients – De and leachability indices – LX. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were implemented to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for immobilization of the Cu, Pb and Zn. This analysis confirmed the formation of compact matrices and pozzolanic products. Compressive strength measurement also proved the treatment efficacy. It can be concluded that the S/S technique has significant potential for solving the problem of hazardous industrial waste and its safe disposal.

Keywords: industrial waste, long-term leaching, low-cost binders, compressive strength, sustainable waste management.

More >>>

Tretman mulja piritne izgoretine nakon upotrebe u degradaciji boja – studija izvodljivosti 

IZVOD

Tokom poslednjih nekoliko godina “zeleni” koncept u upravljanju opasnim otpadom dobija sve veći značaj. Ovaj termin se odnosi na procese i aktivnosti koje imaju mali ili zanemarljiv uticaj na životnu sredinu. Cilj ove studije je da se sistematski kvantifikuju fizičke i hemijske karakteristike solidifikovanog i stabilizovanog (S/S) mulja dobijenog u tretmanu efluenta koji sadrži boje, kada je piritna izgoretina upotrebljena kao izvor katalitičkog gvožđa u modifikovanom heterogenom Fenton procesu. S/S tretman je izveden korišćenjem dve gline (kaolinit i bentonit) i kreča u cilju imobilizacije Cu, Pb and Zn prisutnih u mulju. Mikrotalasna sekvencijalna ekstrakcija je korišćena za procenu potencijalne mobilnosti metala i rizika po životnu sredinu. U cilju utvrđivanja dugoročnog ponašanja S/S smeša izveden je  semi-dinamički ANS 16.1 test izluživanja. Efektivnost S/S tretmana procenjena je merenjem kumulativne frakcije izluženih metala, efektivnog difuzionog koeficijenta – De i indeksa izluživanja – LX. Skenirajuća elektronska mikroskopija (SEM) i X-ray difrakcija (XRD) su korišćene da razjasne mehanizam odgovoran za imobilizaciju Cu, Pb i Zn. Ova analiza je potvrdila formiranje kompaktnog matriksa i pozolaničkih produkata. Merenja pritisne čvrstoće su takođe dokazala efikasnost tretmana. Može se zaključiti da S/S tehnika ima značajan potencijal u rešavanju problema sa opasnim industrijskim otpadom i njegovim bezbednim odlaganjem.

Ključne reči: industrijski otpad, dugoročno izluživanje, jeftina veziva, pritisna čvrstoća, održivo upravljanje otpadom

Dalje>>>

 


 

 

Bojana Vujović1*, Željka Rudić1, Igor Kljujev2,
Dobrica Rajković2, Mile Božić1, Vera Raičević2

1Institut za vodoprivredu Jaroslav Černi, Beograd – Pinosava, Srbija, 2Univerzitet u Beogradu, Poljoprivredni fakultet, Beograd – Zemun, Srbija

Naučni rad
ISSN 0351-9465, E-ISSN 2466-2585
UDC:631.497
doi: 10.5937/ZasMat1603449V

Zastita Materijala 57 (3)
449 – 454 (2016)

Potencijal formiranja biofilmova Pseudomonas aeruginosa iz životne sredine

Izvod

Stvaranje biofilmova predstavlja jednu od glavnih osobina Pseudomonas aeruginosa koja omogućava ovoj bakteriji preživljavanje u različitim, često nepovoljnim uslovima životne sredine. Međutim, formiranje biofilmova predstavlja i faktor rizika u mnogim oblastima industrije, posebno prehrambene, pošto prisustvo čvrstih površina pruža dobre uslove za formiranje biofilma. Kako je poznato da izolati P. aeruginosa koji potiču iz različitih uzoraka poreklom iz životne sredine imaju različit potencijal da formiraju biofilmove, u ovom radu je ispitana sposobnost formiranja biofilmova četiri izolata ove bakterije i izvršena njihova klasifikacija u odnosu na ovu osobinu. Primenjen je statički test u mikrotitar pločama u trajanju od 24 sata u različitim uslovima temperature (37°C i 22°C), pH (6 i 7) i koncentracije NaCl (1 i 2%). Dobijeni rezultati su pokazali da izolati P. aeruginosa imaju različitu sposobnost da formiraju biofilmove, da je masa formiranih biofilmova bila veća na 22°C, kao i da promenjeni uslovi sredine nisu inhibirali stvaranje biofilmova.

Ključne reči: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, biofilmovi, statički model.

Dalje>>>

Potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa environmental isolates for biofilm formation

Abstract

Biofilm formation is one of the main characteristic of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. This ability provide bacteria to survive in different, usually restrictivesss environmental conditions. In the same time, biofilm forming is a risk in a many field of industry, mainly in food industry. It is known that diverse P. aeruginosa strains from various environmental sources have different potention to form biofilms. In this paper it is examinated the potention to form biofilm four isolates of P. aeruginosa and based of this results, tested isolates have classificated into four groups. Biofilm formation tested in microtitar plates during the 24 hours at changed conditions of temperature (37°C and 22°C), pH (6 and 7) and concentration of NaCl (1% and 2%). Obtained results have shown that isolated P. aeruginosa have unsimilar ability to form biofilms. Biomass of formed biofilm was greater at 22°C than at 37°C. Also, acid conditions and higher concentration of salt had no inhibitory effect to biofilm forming process.

Keywords: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, biofilm formation, static test.

More>>>

 


 

Vera Pavlović1*, Danka Radić2, Vera Karličić2, Blažo Lalević2, Steva Lević2, Vera Raičević2

1Univerzitet u Beogradu, Mašinski fakultet, Beograd, Srbija,
2Univerzitet u Beogradu, Poljoprivredni fakultet, Beograd, Srbija

Naučni rad
ISSN 0351-9465,
E-ISSN 2466-2585
UDC:631.466
doi: 10.5937/ZasMat1603455P


Zastita Materijala 57 (3)
455 – 459 (2016)

Raman spektroskopija i determinacija zemljišnih kvasaca 

IZVOD

U ovom radu su Raman spektroskopijom ispitivana dva izolata kvasaca iz roda Candida. Izolacija kvasaca je izvršena iz zemljišta uzetog iz gradskog parka u Tivtu (Crna Gora) i sa oglednog dobra Radmilovac (Poljoprivredni fakultet, Beograd, Srbija), metodom nakupljanja. Dobijene čiste kulture kvasaca identifikovane su primenom API AUX 20C sistema (bioMerieux-Vitek). Konstatovano je prisustvo vrsta Candida guilliermondii i Candida utilis. Analizirani su Raman spektri koji potiču od lipida, amida, proteina, ugljenih hidrata, aromatičnih aminokiselina i nukleotidnih baza, u širokoj oblasti talasnih brojeva, od 500 do 3200 cm-1. Utvrđeno je da su kod kvasca Candida guilliermondii pikovi koji odgovaraju frakciji lipida bitno izraženiji nego kod Candida utilis, što može predstavljati specifičan odgovor date vrste kvasca na stres.

Ključne reči: Raman spektri, kvasci, lipidi, proteini, amidi, aromatične aminokiseline.

Dalje>>>

 

Raman spectroscopy and determination of soil yeasta 

ABSTRACT

In this paper, two isolates of yeasts, members of the genus Candida, have been examined using Raman spectroscopy. The yeasts were isolated from soils sampled at the town park in Tivat (Montenegro) and experimental farm Radmilovac (Serbia), by the accumulation method. The pure cultures of yeasts were identified by the API 20C AUX system. The presence of Candida guilliermondii and Candida utilis was noted. The Raman spectra, originating from lipids, amides, proteins, carbohydrates, aromatic amino acids and the nucleotide bases, were analyzed in the wide range of the wave numbers from 500 to 3200 cm-1. It was noticed that peaks which correspond to the lipid fraction were more pronounced in the case of Candida guilliermondii compared to Candida utilis. This may represent a specific response of the yeast species to stress conditions.

 

Keywords: Raman spectra, yeast, lipids, proteins, amides, aromatic amino acids.

More>>>

 


Ranko Grujić1*, Miladin Gligorić2, Božo Dalmacija3, Vaso Novaković1, Srđan Rončević3, Časlav Lačnjevac4
1“IPIN” Ltd., Bijeljina, Institute for applied geology and hydroengineering,RS, BiH, 2University of East Sarajevo, Faculty of Technology Zvornik,RS,BiH, 3University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Sciences Novi Sad,Serbia, 4University of Belgrade, Faculty of Agriculture, Belgrade,Serbia

Scientific paper
ISSN 0351-9465, E-ISSN 2466-2585
UDC:628.193:551.435.17(282.243.7)
doi:10.5937/ZasMat1603460G

Zastita Materijala 57 (3)
460 – 472 (2016)

Modelling transport polluting substances into alluvial sediments of the Danube River near Novi Sad

ABSTRACT

The paper analyzes the behavior and interaction of water and the environment in different conditions of groundwater regime. Based on the quality of groundwater i.e. physical-chemical and microbiological characteristics of water from source in the alluvions of the Danube and water quality of the Danube River, we can assume the possible impact on the quality of the river water source in Novi Sad.

Good knowledge of the sources and quantities of accumulated  pollutions in the sediments and hydrogeological conditions in aquifers in a particular period are crucial for proper placement of the conceptual model of the aquifer. Properly set conceptual model has a crucial role for good mathematical model of pollution transport in aquifer. Water source Štrand near Novi Sad has been selected for the modeling because the data on the water quality of this water source and characteristics of alluvial sediments are very well researched.

Key words: groundwater, alluvium, sediment, transport, pollution, mathematical model.

More>>>

Modelovanje transporta zagađujućih materija u aluvijalnim sedimentima reke Dunav kod Novog Sada 

IZVOD

Fizičko-hemijske i mikrbiološke analaze vode iz aluvijalnih sedimenata rijeke Dunav i sedimenta riječnog korita pokazuju prisutno zagađenja organskog i neorganskog porijekla. Uzorci su analizirani prema propisanim standardnim metodama za određivanje higijenske ispravnosti vode za piće. Analizirano je i prisustvo teških metala, specifičnih organskih materija, ukupnih ugljovodonika, mineralnih ulja, pesticida i organskih profila vode GC/MS analizom. Za hemijsku analizu komponenata prisutnih u vodi  korišteni su IR spektrofotometar, gasni hromatograf sa masenim detektorom – koji ima mogućnost kvalitativne analize jedinjenja u količini iznad 1 ppm i kvantitativne analize pojedinih određivanih toksičnih jedinjenja u količini iznad 1 ppb. Određivanje koliformnih bakterija vršeno je membran filter metodom. Prisustvo zagađujućih materija je otkriveno u skoro svim pijezometrima i bunarima tokom monitoringa podzemne vode. Zbog prisutnog zagađenja urađen je matematički model transporta zagađenja na izvorištu Štrand. Transport zagađenja je modelovan za dva parametra: vinil-hlorid kao karakteristični predstavnik zagađenja iz industrije i natrijum koji predstavlja reprezentativni vid antropogenog zagađenja nastalog u domaćinstvima.

Ključne riječi: analiza, aluvijon, sediment, transport, zagađenje, matematički model.

Dalje>>>

 


Hadi Waisi1*, Marko Milojković2, Bogdan Nikolić3, Miloš Marinković4, Ivan Panić1, Martina Ormai5

1*Institute for the Development of Water Resources”Jaroslav Černi”, Belgrade, Serbia, 2University of Belgrade, Faculty of Biology, Beograd, Serbia, 3Institute for Plant Protection and Environment, Belgrade, Serbia, 4University of Nis, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Niš, Serbia, 5University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Agriculture, Novi Sad, Serbia

Scientific paper
ISSN 0351-9465, E-ISSN 2466-2585
UDC:665.333.4.033

doi: 10.5937/ZasMat1603473W

Zastita Materijala 57 (3)
473 – 479 (2016)

Influence of process parameters on transesterification reaction of corn oil over base promoted γ-alumina

ABSTRACT

Due to the frequent use of fossil fuels, which has negative effects on the environment, there is a need to find a new, environmentally acceptable replacements for fossil fuels. One of the possible replacement is the inclusion of green technologies, in order to obtain the type of fuel that would be acceptable from an environmental and economic point of view. Biodiesel represents renewable and less toxic substituent for fossil fuels, which consists of esters of higher fatty acids and depending on the environmental conditions, can be manufactured from various types of oils, both plant and animal origin. Since corn is one of the most cultivated plants in Serbia, the research included the transesterification reaction of corn oil on a heterogeneous catalyst. The paper examined the activity of heterogeneous base catalyst (CaO / γ-Al2O3) and the influence of various parameters on the conversion of corn oil. From the optimization of process parameters, it was found that the optimal conditions for transesterification of corn oil to 25% CaO / γ-Al2O3: molar ratio of methanol to oil 1:12; stirring speed 900rpm; reflux temperature of the methanol; reaction time of 6 hours; the amount of catalyst in the reaction of 5wt.%.

Keywords: corn oil, heterogeneous catalyst, process parameters, transesterification

More>>>

 

Uticaj procesnih parametara na transesterifikaciju kukuruznog ulja na bazno promovisanoj  γ – alumini kao heterogenom katalizatoru

IZVOD

Zbog sve učestalijeg korišćenja fosilnih goriva, koja imaju nepoželjne efekte na životnu sredinu, postoji potreba za pronalaženjem nove, ekološki prihvatljive zamene za fosilna goriva. Jednu od mogućih zamena predstavlja uključivanje zelenih tehnologija radi dobijanja vrste goriva koje bi bilo prihvatljivo sa ekološkog i ekonomskog aspekta. Bidizel predstavlja obnovljiv i manje toksičan substituent za fosilna goriva, koji se sastoji od estara viših masnih kiselina i u zavisnosti od podnevlja, može se proizvoditi od različitih vrsta ulja, kako biljnog, tako i životinjskog porekla. Obzirom da je kukuruz jedna od najviše gajenih vrsta biljaka u Srbiji, istraživanja su obuhvatila reakciju transesterifikacije kukuruznog ulja na heterogenom katalizatoru. U radu je ispitivana aktivnost heterogenog baznog katalizatora (CaO/γ-Al2O3) kao i uticaj različitih parametara na konverziju kukuruznog ulja. Optimizacijom procesnih parametara je ustanovljeno da su optimalni uslovi za transesterifikaciju kukuruznog ulja na 25% CaO/γ-Al2O3: Molarni odnos metanola prema ulju 1:12; brzina mešanja 900rpm; temperatura reakcije refluks metanola; vreme reakcije 6 sati; količina katalizatora u reakciji 5%.

Ključne reči: kukuruzno ulje, heterogeni katalizator, procesni parametri, transesterifikacija.

Dalje>>>

 


 

Marija Petrović1*, Tatjana Šoštarić1, Mirjana Stojanović1, Jelena Petrović1, Časlav Lačnjevac2, Katarina Trivunac3, Slavka Stanković3

1Institut za tehnologiju nuklearnih i drugih mineralnih sirovina ITNMS, Beograd, Srbija, 2Univerzitet u Beogradu, Poljoprivredni fakultet, Beograd, Srbija, 3Univerzitet u Beogradu, Tehnološko-metalurški fakultet, Beograd, Srbija

Naučni rad
ISSN 0351-9465, E-ISSN 2466-2585
UDC:628.161.2
doi: 10.5937/ZasMat1603480P

Zastita Materijala 57 (3)
480 – 487 (2016)

Karakterizacija i primena oklaska kukuruza za biosorpciju Pb2+, Cu2+ i Zn2+ jona iz vodenog rastvora

IZVOD

Cilj ovog rada je ispitivanje mogućnosti upotrebe oklaska kukuruza za uklanjanje teških metala iz vodenih rastvora. Svi biosorpcioni eksperimenti izvođeni su u šaržnom sistemu. Karakterizacija biosorbenta izvršena je termijskom analizom (DTA/TGA), metodom skenirajuće elektronske mikro­skopije i energijsko–disperzivne rendgenske analize (SEM–EDX) i infracrvenom spektroskopijom sa Furijeovom transformacijom (FTIR). Na osnovu FTIR analize oklaska kukuruza pre i nakon uklanjanja Pb2+, Cu2+ i Zn2+ jona, ustanovljeno je da jonska izmena i hemisorpcija učestvuju u procesu biosorpcije jona metala na oklasku kukuruza. Eksperimentalni rezultati obrađeni su Lengmirovim i Frojndlihovim modelom izotermi. Maksimalni adsorpcioni kapacitet oklaska kukuruza za Pb2+, Cu2+ i Zn2+ iznosi 5,59; 2,62 i 1,23 mg/g, respektivno. Nakon ispitivanja procesa desorpcije zaključeno je da se adsorbovani joni metala na oklasku kukuruza efikasno i lako mogu ukloniti rastvorom HNO3. Rezultati ovog istraživanja ukazuju da se oklasak kukuruza može primeniti kao potencijalni biosorbent za uklanjanje Pb2+, Cu2+ i Zn2+ jona iz vodenih rastvora.

Ključne reči: oklasak kukuruza, biosorpcija, teški metali, karakterizacija, desorpcija.

Dalje>>>

 

Characterization and usefulness of corn cob as biosorbent for  Pb2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions removal from aqueous solutions

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to investigate corncob as biosorbent for heavy metals removal from aqueous solutions. All biosorption experiments were performed in batch system. The biosorbent were caracterized by thermal analysis (DTA/TGA), Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Disperzive X-Ray analysis (SEM–EDX) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. FTIR analysis of corn cob before and after Pb2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ removal from aqueous solutions showed that ion exchange and chemisorption were involved in biosorption process of metal ions on to corn cob. Experimental data were fitted by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Maximum adsorption capacity of corn cob for Pb2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ were 5,59; 2,62 i 1,23 mg/g, respectively. Desorption study showed that metal adsorbed corn cob can be effectively regenerated by HNO3 solution. Results from this study indicated that corn cob can be used as potential biosorbent for Pb2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ removal from aqueous solutions.

Keywords: corn cob, biosorption, heavy metals, characterization, desorption

More>>>

 


 

 

Marija Mihajlović1*, Jelena Petrović1, Mirjana Stojanović1, Jelena Milojković1,  Zorica Lopičić1,  Marija Koprivica1, Časlav Lačnjevac2

1Institute for Technology of Nuclear and Other Mineral Raw Materials, Belgrade, Serbia, 2University of Belgrade, Faculty of Agriculture, Belgrade, Serbia

 

Review paper
ISSN 0351-9465, E-ISSN 2466-2585
UDC:628.161.2
doi:10.5937/ZasMat1603488M

Zastita Materijala 57 (3)
488 – 495 (2016)

Hydrochars, perspective adsorbents of heavy metals – A review of the current state of studies

ABSTRACT

As an alternative to dry pyrolysis, hydrothermal carbonization has been proposed as a promising route for conversion of different wastes into biofuels, adsorbents and specific chemicals. Herein, the application of a wide range of waste biomasses as precursors to obtain hydrochars – efficient adsorbents of heavy metals from wastewaters, using hydrothermal conversion, was reviewed. The efficiency of biosorbents has been discussed with respect to the structural characteristics, reaction parameters, sorption capacities and mechanisms, as well as proposed methods of improving hydrochar´s surface reactivity. Altogether, biosorption with hydrochars has been identified as a proper alternative to the existing technologies applied for the removal of toxic metal ions from wastewater streams.

Keywords: hydrochar, heavy metals, adsorption, activation

More>>>

 

Hidročađi, perspektivni adsorbenti teških metala – pregled aktuelnih pravaca u istraživanjima

IZVOD

Kao alternativa pirolizi, hidrotermalna karbonizacija je predložena kao perspektivan pravac konverzije širokog spektra otpadnih biomasa u biogoriva, adsorbente i specifične hemikalije. U ovom preglednom radu predstavljena su aktuelna istraživanja primene različitih otpadnih biomasa, kao prekursora za dobijanje hidročađi – efikasnih adsorbenata teških metala iz otpadnih voda postupkom hidrotermalne konverzije. Efikasnost biosorbenata je diskutovana u odnosu na strukturne karakteristike, reakcione parametre, sorpcione kapacitete i mehanizme, kao i predložene metode poboljšanja površinske reaktivnosti hidročađi. Sveukupno, biosorpcija hidročađima je identifikovana kao dobra alternativa konvencionalnim tehnologijama uklanjanja toksičnih metalnih jona iz otpadnih voda.

Ključne reči: hidročađi, teški metali, adsorpcija, aktivacija.

Dalje>>>

 


 

Tamara Jakovljević1*, Ivana Radojčić Redovniković2, Anamarija Laslo1

1Croatian Forest Research Institute, Jastrebarsko, Croatia,
2University of Zagreb, Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, Zagreb, Croatia

Review paper
ISSN 0351-9465,
E-ISSN 2466-2585
UDC:628.168:632.122.23
doi:10.5937/ZasMat1603496J

Zastita Materijala 57 (3)
496 – 501 (2016)

Phytoremediation of heavy metals – Applications and experiences in Croatia

ABSTRACT

Phytoremediation is defined as the effective use of plants to remove, detoxify or immobilize contaminants in the area of growth (soil, water, sediment) through biological, chemical or physical processes naturally occurring in plants. It involves growing plants in a contaminated medium, over a certain period of growth, in order to remove contaminants from the medium, or to facilitate the immobilization (binding/stopping) or degradation (detoxification) of contaminants. The biggest problem are inorganic contaminants, as opposed to organic, they are not biodegradable to less or nontoxic compounds. The main representatives of inorganic contaminants are heavy metals which pollute soils and introduce hazardous effects to the environment and to animal and human health. A large number of researches indicates that plants have a huge genetic potential that allows the removal of toxic metals from the soil, so they may play a major role in the process of phytoremediation. A research has been carried out in Croatia in this regard, related to which kind of plants are best suited to facilitate the process of phytoremediation and results showed that poplar (Populus sp.) had the highest tolerance to heavy metals and highest prospect for successful application in phytoremediation.

Keywords: phytoremediation, contaminants, heavy metals, plants, poplar.

More>>>

 

Fitoremedijacija teških metala – primena i iskustva u Hrvatskoj 

IZVOD

Fitoremedijacija se definira kao učinkovito korištenje biljki za uklanjanje, detoksikaciju ili imobilizaciju onečišćenja u području rasta (tlo, voda, sedimenti) putem bioloških, kemijskih ili fizikalnih procesa koji se pojavljuju prirodno u biljkama. To uključuje biljke koje brzo rastu iz onečišćenog medija tijekom određenog razdoblja rasta, kako bi se uklonili kontaminanti iz reakcijske smjese, ili se olakšala imobilizacija (vezivanje/zaustavljanje) ili degradacija (detoksikaciju) zagađivača. Najveći problem su anorganski zagađivači koji za razliku od organskih nisu biorazgradivi na manje ili netoksične spojeve. Glavni predstavnici anorganskih zagađivala su teški metali koji zagađuju tlo i mogu imati opasne posljedice na okoliš, životinje i ljudsko zdravlje. Velik broj istraživanja pokazuje da biljke imaju ogroman genetski potencijal koji omogućava uklanjanje toksičnih metala iz tla, tako da one mogu igrati važnu ulogu u procesu fitoremedijacije. Istraživanje je provedeno u Hrvatskoj, a u odnosu na to koja je biljna vrsta najpogodnija kako bi se olakšao proces fitoremedijacije, i rezultati su pokazali da je topola (Populus sp.) imala najveću toleranciju na teške metale i najviše izglede za uspješnu primjenu u fitoremedijaciji

Ključne reči: fitoremedijacija, kontaminanti, teški metali, biljke, topola

Dalje>>>