Return to Izdanja 2020. godine

Zaštita Materijala 1. 2020

 

Aurel Nuro1*,  Jonida Salihila1,  Dorina Shengjergji2, Dhimiter Peci3,  Aida Dervishi4

1Tirana University, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Chemistry Department, Tirana, 2Albanian University, Faculty of Medicinal Sciences, Pharmacy Department,Tirana,  3Tirana University, Faculty of Natural Sciences, National Center of Flora and Fauna, Tirana, 4Tirana University, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Biotechnology Department, Tirana, Albania

Scientific paper
ISSN 0351-9465, E-ISSN 2466-2585
UDC: 582.929.4:[66.014: 547.913] (496.5)
doi: 10.5937/zasmat2001005N

Zastita Materijala 61 (1)
5 – 12  (2020)

 

Chemical composition of essential oil for Thymus population from Albania

Abstract

This study presents data about chemical composition of essential oils for Thymus populations from the Albania. The genus Thymus contains about 350 species of aromatic plants in the family Lamiaceae. It is in the form of a beautiful shrub with numerous branches used often as decorative plant besides it uses for culinary and medical purposes. Thymus plants are part of spontaneous flora in Albania and almost throughout the Mediterranean areas.

Thymus vulgaris, Thymus capitatus and Thymus serpyllum samples from different areas of Albania were taken in July 2017. The air dried plant samples were cut in small pieces (1-2 cm) and after that were subjected to European Pharmacopoeia apparatus (Clevenger type) for 4 hours to obtain Thymus essential oil. The chemical composition of essential oils was analyzed using GC/FID technique. The oil of each Thymus samples was injected in a Varian 450 GC. VF-1ms capillary column (30 m x 0.33 mm x 0.25 um) were used for separation of compounds. 40-65 compounds were found in analyzed samples.

Para-Cymene, gama-Terpinen, Thymol and Carvacrol were identified as main constituents and all analyzed essential oils of Thymus samples from Albania. Para-Cymene was the main constituent for Thymus vulgaris samples. Carvacrol was found in higher percentage for Thymus capitatus and Thymus serpyllum. Thymol was in higher percentage for Thymus vulgaris and Thymus serpyllum. Total of Thymol and Carvacrol were higher for Thymus serpyllum samples. The same compounds were found for all Thymus samples but were noted differences in percentage between them. This is related with differences between species obtained for analysis but is not excluded the impact of geographic and geological factors. Data reported in this paper were similar to those published in previous works in Balkan and Mediterranean area.

Keywords: Thymus; Esencial oil; p-Cymene; gama-Terpinen; Thymol; Carvacrol; GC/FID.

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Hemijski sastav esencijalnog ulja za populaciju Thymus iz Albanije 

Izvod

Ova studija prikazuje podatke o hemijskom sastavu esencijalnih ulja za populaciju Thymusa iz Albanije. Rod Thymus sadrži oko 350 vrsta aromatičnih biljaka iz porodice Lamiaceae. U obliku je prekrasnog grmlja s brojnim granama koje se često koriste kao ukrasna biljka, osim što ga koriste u kulinarske i medicinske svrhe. Biljke timijana deo su spontane flore u Albaniji i gotovo u svim mediteranskim oblastima.

Uzorci Thymus vulgaris, Thymus capitatus i Thymus serpyllum iz različitih oblasti Albanije uzeti su u julu 2017. Uzorci biljnih osušenih komada isečeni su u malim komadima (1-2 cm) i nakon toga podvrgnuti u farmakopejskoj aparaturi (Clevenger tip) u toku 4 sata za dobijanje Thymus esencijalnog ulja. Hemijski sastav esencijalnih ulja je analiziran korišćenjem GC/FID tehnike. Ulje svakog Thymus uzorka ubrizgano je u Varian 450 GC. Za razdvajanje jedinjenja korišćeni su VF-1ms kapilarni stupac (30 mk 0,33 mmk 0,25 um). Nađeno je 40-65 jedinjenja u analiziranim uzorcima.

Para-Cymene, gama-Terpinen, Thymol i Carvacrol identifikovani su kao glavni sastojci i sva analizirana esencijalna ulja uzoraka Thymusa iz Albanije. Para-Cymene je bio glavni sastojak uzoraka Thymus vulgaris. Pronađen je Carvacrol u većem procentu od Thymus capitatus i Thymus serpyllum. Thymol je bio u većem procentu od Thymus vulgaris i Thymus serpyllum. Ukupan broj Thymol-a i Carvacrol bio je veći od uzorka Thymus serpyllum. Pronađena su ista jedinjenja za sve Thymus uzorke, ali su primećene razlike u procentima između njih. Ovo je povezano sa razlikama između vrsta dobijenih tokom analize, ali nije isključen uticaj geografskih i geoloških faktora. Podaci navedeni u ovom radu bili su slični onima objavljenim u prethodnim radovima na području Balkana i Mediterana.

Ključne reči: Thymus, esencijalna ulja, p-Cymene, gama-Terpinen, Thymol, Carvacrol, GC/FID.

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Marina Stamenović1, Danijela Kovačević1, Vesna Alivojvodić1, Slaviša Putić2*

1Belgrade Polytechnic, Vocational college in Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia, 2University of Belgrade, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade, Serbia

Review paper
ISSN 0351-9465, E-ISSN 2466-2585
UDC: 620.97:[620.282+66.065.32]
doi: 10.5937/zasmat2001013S

Zastita Materijala 61 (1)
13 – 18  (2020)

 

Thermal treatment of composite wastes for energy recovery

Abstract

The expression waste-to-energy technologies is increasingly being used regarding waste reduction and utilization. Waste-to-energy technologies are procedures used to generate different forms of energy starting from a waste source. Considering that this paper is focused on composite waste, the previously mentioned procedures can be divided into mechanical, thermal and chemical treatment of composite waste. Thermal treatment processes provide a wide range of options to produce electricity, heat, oils, gases, fuels and chemicals starting from composite waste. Some procedures are used for commercial purposes, while many are still being developed in laboratories or semi-industrial plants. The presented paper is focused to briefly review recent research in the field of thermal treatment of composite waste materials.

Keywords: composite waste, recycling, thermal treatment, fibres, energy.

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Termički tretman otpadnih kompozitnih materijala u cilju dobijanja energije

Izvod

Proizvodnja energije iz otpadnih materijala primenom različitih tehnologija je jedan od načina ponovne upotrebe i ujedno redukcije otpadnih materijala. Sve ove tehnologije reciklaže imaju jednu zajedničku karakteristiku – dobijanje energije u različitim oblicima, polazeci od otpadnih materijala kao sirovina. Imajuci u vidu da je ovaj rad fokusiran na kompozitne otpadne materijale, pomenute procedure se mogu podeliti na mehaničke, termičke i hemijske tretmane kompozithog otpada. Termički tretmanima kompozitnog otpada je moguća proizvodnja energije u vidu eliktriciteta, toplote, ulja, gasova, goriva i različitih hemijskih jedinjenja. Pojedine procedure su uvedene u komercijalnu upotrebu, dok se veliki broj njih trenutno razvija u laboratorijskim ili polu-industrijskim postrojenjima. U radu je ukratko dat prikaz trenutnog stanja i inovacija u oblasti termičkog tretmana otpadnih kompozitnih materijala.

Ključne reči: otpadni kompoziti, recikliranje, termički tretman, vlakna, energija

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Džemila Agić1*, Halid Makić2, Miladin Gligorić3, Sejfudin Agić4

1Centar za ekologiju i energiju,Tuzla, BiH, 2Univerzitet u Bihaću, Biotehnički fakultet,  Bihać,BiH, 3Univerzitet u Istočnom Sarajevu, Tehnološki fakultet Zvornik, Zvornik,BiH, 4Elektrotehnička škola u Tuzli, Tuzla, BiH

Naučni rad
ISSN 0351-9465, E-ISSN 2466-2585
UDC: 502.3:504.5:621.43.064: 004.81:159.953.5
doi: 10.5937/zasmat2001019A

Zastita Materijala 61 (1)
19 – 30  (2020)

 

Modeling of suspended particles concentrations in the urban area using artificial intelligence methods

Abstract

The paper develops unique and reliable models for predicting PM2,5 for the City of Tuzla based on the existing monitoring results of PM2,5 and meteorological data (pressure, temperature, wind and humidity) using statistical methods, neural network modeling and genetic programming methods. A correlation between the concentration of pollutants and the influence factors such as temperature and wind has been demonstrated.
The developed models can be used for the prediction of PM2,5 concentrations for the early warnings and public protection from the harmful effects of polluted air on human health. The obtained results can be used in the process of making strategic decisions and activities related to air quality control and management.

Designing of suspended materials concentration in urban areas is very significant when regular measurements are performed, but the measurements of polluting materials are often lacking. In case of the interruption of the pollutants concentration measurements in Tuzla City for a short or longer time, appliance of the model that is resulting from this work can predict the concentration of pollutants and plan actions based on them.

Keywords: air pollution, air monitoring, neural networks, genetic programming.

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Modeliranje koncentracija lebdećih čestica urbanog područja korištenjem metoda vještačke inteligencije

Izvod

U radu su razvijeni jedinstveni i pouzdani modeli za predviđanje PM2,5 za Grad Tuzla na osnovu postojećih rezultata monitoringa PM2,5 i meteoroloških podataka (pritisak, temperatura, vjetar i vlažnost vazduha) korištenjem statističkih metoda i metoda modeliranja neuronskim mrežama i genetskog programiranja.

Dokazana je korelacija između koncentracije zagađujućih materija te uticajnih (meteo) faktora  kao što su temperatura i vjetar.
Razvijeni modeli se mogu koristiti za predviđanje koncentracija PM2,5 u cilju ranog upozoravanja i zaštite javnosti od štetnog uticaja zagađenog vazduha na zdravlje ljudi. Rezultati dobijeni korištenjem ovih modela se mogu koristiti u procesima donošenja strateških odluka i aktivnosti vezanih za kontrolu i upravljanje kvalitetom vazduha.
Modeliranje koncentracije lebdećih materija u urbanim područjima je vrlo značajno za područja gdje se vrši redovno mjerenje, međutim često nedostaju mjerenja prisustva zagađujućih materija.
U slučaju da dođe do kratkog ili dužeg prekida mjerenja koncentracija zagađujućih materija za Grad Tuzlu, uz pomoć modela, koji su rezultat ovog rada, se može uraditi predviđanje koncentracija zagađujućih materija i na osnovu njih planirati preduzimanje mjera.

Ključne riječi: zagađenje vazduha, monitoring vazduha, neuronske mreže, genetsko programiranje.

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Vlatko Kastratović1*, Slađana Krivokapić1, Dijana Đurović2

1University of Montenegro, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Podgorica, Montenegro, 2Institute of Public Health of Montenegro, Podgorica, Montenegro

Scientific paper
ISSN 0351-9465, E-ISSN 2466-2585
UDC: 546.881+553.26 (497.16 Skadarsko jezero)
doi: 10.5937/zasmat2001031K
Zastita Materijala 61 (1)
31 – 40  (2020)

 

Vanadium uptake, translocation and bioaccumulation  in ecosystem of Skadar Lake, Montenegro

Abstract

Lake Skadar is a highly vulnerable ecosystem affected by various types of anthropogenic pressures. In the last few years, interest in vanadium (V) has increased due to several negative effects on the environment. Our research aims to find the V content per fractions of sediments, and estimate bioavailability, including by analyzing content ratios in the sediment, in water and macrophytes and plant tissue distribution. Low content of vanadium was recorded in the water. In the sediment of Skadar Lake, values were found in the range of 18.1 to 49.5 mgkg-1. The largest amounts of V (11.8 mgkg-1) are found in mineral crystalline lattices (residual fraction), so V is substantially immobilized in the sediment of the lake. Based on the calculated geochemical parameters, it can be concluded that the sediment of Skadar Lake is not contaminated with V and it is under the low risk category at all investigated locations. In the tissues of the examined macrophytes, the mean value of V content, in relation to the location and sampling time, is in the range 0.05-8.15 mgkg-1 of the dry part of the plant. The studied macrophytes showed a low bioaccumulation capacity for V. A different seasonal trend of concentration of V in macrophytes was recorded. And the translocation ability between individual parts of the plant is different and depends on the type of macrophytes.

Keywords: Skadar Lake, sediment, macrophytes, vanadium, bioindicator.

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Usvajanje, translokacija i bioakumulacija vanadijuma u ekosistemu Skadarskog jezera, Crna Gora

Izvod

Skadarsko jezero je visoko ranjivi ekosistem pogođen različitim vrstama antropogenih pritisaka.  Poslednjih nekoliko godina, interesovanje za vanadijumom (V) je poraslo zbog nekoliko negativnih uticaja na životnu sredinu. Naše istraživanje ima za cilj da odredi sadržaj V po frakcijama sedimenta i procijeni njegovu bioraspoloživost, uključujući analizu odnosa sadržaja u sedimentu, vodi i makrofitima i raspodjeli u biljnim tkivima. Zabilježen je nizak sadržaj vanadijuma u vodi. U sedimentu Skadarskog jezera nađene vrijednosti su u opsegu od 18.1 do 49.5 mg kg-1. Najveće količine V (11.8 mg kg-1) nalaze se u kristalnim rešetkama minerala (rezidualna frakcija), tako da je V znatno imobilisan u sedimentu jezera. Na osnovu izračunatih geohemijskih parametara može se zaključiti da sediment Skadarskog jezera nije zagađen V i da je pod niskim rizikom na svim istraživanim lokacijama. U tkivima ispitivanih makrofita srednja vrednost sadržaja V, u odnosu na lokaciju i vrijeme uzorkovanja, je u opsegu 0.05–8.15 mg kg-1 suvog dijela biljke. Proučavane makrofite su pokazale nizak kapacitet bioakumulacije za V. Zabilježen je različit sezonski trend koncentracije V u makrofitima. I translokaciona sposobnost između pojedinih dijelova biljaka je različita i zavisi od vrste makrofita.

Ključne riječi: Skadarsko jezero, sediment, makrofite, vanadijum, bioindikator.

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Bojana M. Radojković1*, Bore V. Jegdić1, Biljana M. Bobić1, Slavica Ristić2, Suzana Polić2

1University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade, Serbia, 2Central Institute for Conservation in Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

Scientific paper
ISSN 0351-9465, E-ISSN 2466-2585
UDC:628.147.22:66.088: 661.872
doi: 10.5937/zasmat2001041R

Zastita Materijala 61 (1)
41 – 51  (2020)

 

Corrosion characteristics of laser-cleaned surfaces on iron artefact**

Abstract

Nd:YAG laser was used for cleaning surfaces of cultural heritage iron artefacts covered with corrosion products. The corrosion products were removed without damaging the base material. Three different electrochemical techniques were used for the determination of the corrosion rate of mechanically prepared iron, laser-cleaned iron and laser-cleaned iron with Paraloid B44 coating. The morphology of the tested surfaces was analysed by SEM. The linear polarization resistance technique, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and linear sweep voltammetry have shown that the corrosion rate of the laser-cleaned iron is approximately 50 % higher than the corrosion rate of the mechanically prepared iron. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy has shown that the pore resistance of the Paraloid coating on the laser-cleaned iron sample decreases at the beginning of the test and remains approximately constant after this period. At the beginning of the test, the charge transfer resistance value is constant and then decreases rapidly i.e. the corrosion rate of the iron in the Paraloid coating pores increases with time. During the linear sweep voltammetry test of the iron sample with Paraloid coating, it was noticed that the anodic polarisation curve shows an unusual shape at the potentials more positive than – 0.5 V.

Keywords: Iron artefacts, laser-cleaning, corrosion, electrochemical techniques, corrosion rate.

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Koroziona svojstva laserski čišćenih površina na artefaktu od gvožđa

Izvod

U ovom radu, Nd:YAG laser je korišćen za čišćenje površina artefakata od gvožđa koji su bili prekriveni korozionim produktima. Korozioni produkti su uklonjeni bez oštećivanja osnovnog materijala. Za određivanje brzine korozije mehanički čišćene površine, laserski čišćene površine i laserski čišćene površine na koju je nakon čišćenja nanesen zaštitni sloj Paraloid B44, korišćene su tri različite elektrohemijske metode. Morfologija čišćenih površina je ispitivana SEM mikroskopijom. Metoda linearne polarizacione otpornosti, elektrohemijska impedansna spektroskopija i voltametrija sa linearnom promenom potencijala pokazale su da je brzina korozije laserski čišćene površine uzorka od gvožđa za oko 50% veća od brzine korozije mehanički čišćene površine. Elektrohemijska impedansna spektroskopija je pokazala da otpornost pora Paraloid prevlake na laserski čišćenoj površini uzorka opada na početku ispitivanja nakon čega dostiže konstantnu vrednost. Na početku ispitivanja, vrednost otpornosti razmeni elektrona je konstantna nakon čega naglo opada, tj. brzina korozije gvožđa u porama Paraloid prevlake raste sa vremenom. Tokom ispitivanja tehnikom voltametrije sa linearnom promenom potencijala na uzorku od gvožđa sa Paraloid prevlakom, zapaženo je da anodna kriva polarizacije ima neuobičajen oblik pri potencijalima pozitivnijim od – 0.5 V.

Ključne reči: artefakti od gvožđa, lasersko čišćenje, korozija, elektrohemijske metode, brzina korozije.

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Mihailo Mrdak1*,  Časlav Lačnjevac2,  Marko Rakin3, Đorđe Janaćković4,  Darko Veljić4,  Darko Bajić5

1University of Belgrade, Innovation Center, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade, Srbija, 2University of Belgrade, Faculty of Agriculture, Belgrade,Serbia,3University of Belgrade, Tehnološko-metalurški fakultet, Belgrade, Serbia, 4University of Belgrade, Innovation Center, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade, Serbia, 5University of Montenegro, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, R.Montenegro

Scientific paper
ISSN 0351-9465, E-ISSN 2466-2585
UDC:669.018.6: 546.82
doi: 10.5937/zasmat2001052M

Zastita Materijala 61 (1)
52 – 59  (2020)

 

The mechanical and microstructural properties of  VPS – Ti  porous coating deposited on titanium alloy substrates for osseointegration

Abstract

The topography of the surface of the deposited VPS-Ti coatings on substrate surfaces of implants relating to the roughness and porous structure plays a decisive role in the process of on growth of the implants to the bones i.e.osseointegration. Direct bone on growth has been successfully achieved by using micro rough coating surfaces, such as the use of vacuum plasma spraying VPS – Ti coatings. The aim of this study was to make a comprehensive review of the characterization of porous VPS-Ti coatings deposited on substrates of titanium alloy that will find application in orthopedics.One of the preferred features of the VPS process is the ability to achieve optimum macro and micro structure of the surface of implants by optimizing the spray parameters of the powder deposition and by the range of the powder granulation. In order to achieve an optimum surface roughness, open porosity and structure of VPS-Ti coatings conducted was the optimization of deposition of powder with a change in plasma current and powder carrier gas flow rate of (700 A, 35 l/min and 800A, 20 l/min). Lower intensity plasma current with a greater flow of powder heats and melts the powder particles less forming micro pores of a larger size and a higher proportion of open pores and vice versa higher plasma currents and reduced flow provide better melted particles forming a smaller share of micro pores and open porosity in the deposited layers. Image analysis showed that by optimization of parameters in the coatings open porosity can be formed ranging from 45% to 57%. By examining the properties of the deposited layers it was determined that the most optimal roughness and share of open pores for osseointegration have the Ti layers which have been deposited with the lowest amperage and highest flow of powder carrier gas.

Keywords: Osseointegration, VPS-Ti, porosity, bond strength, microstructure.

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Mehanička i mikrostrukturna svojstva VPS – Ti porozne prevlake deponovane na podlogama od legure titana za osteointegraciju

Izvod

Topografija površine deponovanih VPS-Ti prevlaka na podlogama implanata koja se odnosi na hrapavost i poroznu strukturu imaju odlučujuću ulogu u procesu srastanja implanata sa kostima odnosno osteointegraciju. Direktno urastanje kostiju uspešno se postiže korišćenjem mikro grubih površina prevlaka, kao što je primena vakuum plazma sprej VPS – Ti prevlake. Cilj ovog rada je bio da se napravi sveobuhvatan pregled karakterizacija VPS-Ti poroznih prevlaka deponovanih na podlogama od legure titana koje će naći aplikaciju u ortopediji. Jedna od povoljnih osobina VPS procesa je mogućnost postizanja optimalne makro i mikro strukture površine implanata optimizacijom sprej parametara depozicije praha i rasponom granulacije praha. U cilju postizanja optimalne hrapavosti, otvorene poroznosti i strukture VPS-Ti prevlaka sprovedena je optimizacija depozicije praha sa promenom plazma struje i protokom nosećeg gasa praha (700 A, 35 l/min i 800A, 20 l/min). Niža jačina plazma struje uz veći protok praha slabije progreva i topi čestice praha obrazujući mikro pore veće veličine i veći udeo otvorenih pora i obrnuto veća plazma struja i manji protok omogućuju bolje topljenje čestica uz formiranje manjeg udela mikro pora i otvorene poroznosti u deponovanim slojevima. Analizom slika ustanovljeno je da se sa optimizacijom parametara u prevlakama može formirati otvorena poroznost sa rasponom od 45% do 57%. Ispitivanjem karakteristika deponovanih slojeva ustanovljeno je da najoptimalniju hrapavost i udeo otvorenih pora za osteointegraciju imaju slojevi Ti deponovani sa najnižom amperažom i najvećim protokom nosećeg gasa praha.

Ključne reći: osteointegracija, VPS-Ti, poroznost, čvrstoća spoja, mikrostruktura.

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Ivanka Ristić, Aleksandar Zdravković, Aleksandra Mičić, Dragana Marković Nikolić, Nebojša Ristić*

Vocational High School for Technology and Art, Leskovac, Serbia

Scientific paper
ISSN 0351-9465, E-ISSN 2466-2585
UDC:677.21:677.027.4
doi: 10.5937/zasmat2001060R

Zastita Materijala 61 (1)
60 – 68  (2020)

 

Ecological alternatives to conventional dyeing of cotton with reactive dyes

Abstract

Cotton dyeing is usually performed by reactive dyes by exhaustion method. Great quantities of salts and alkalis used in the formulation of dyeing bath eventually get into the watercourses and negatively affect the environment. In this work, studied are the possibilities of reducing salt and alkali concentrations in the dyeing bath in order to reduce water pollution after the dyeing process and soap washing. The obtained results show that the alternative procedures are environmentally more favorable, which is demonstrated by reduced values chemical oxygen demand. High level of dye fixation and fastness was achieved, while the colour intensity was slightly lower in comparison with standard samples.

Keywords: cotton, reactive dyes, ecology, waste water, chemical oxygen demand.

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Ekološke alternative u konvencionalnom bojenju pamuka reaktivnim bojama

Izvod

Bojenje pamuka najčešće se izvodi reaktivnim bojama, metodom iscrpljenja. Velike količine soli i alkalija koje se koriste u formulaciji kupatila za bojenje dospevaju u vodotokove i negativno deluju na životnu sredinu. U radu je ispitana mogućnost smanjenja koncentracije soli i alkalija u kupatilu za bojenje radi smanjenja zagađenja vode nakon procesa bojenja i sapunske obrade. Dobijeni rezultati pokazuju da su alternativni postupci ekološki povoljniji, što je utvrđeno smanjenim vrednostima hemijske potrošnje kiseonika. Dobiven je visok stepen fiksiranja boja i postojanosti obojenja, dok je intenzitet obojenja neznatno manji u odnosu na standardne uzorke.

Ključne reči: pamuk, reaktivne boje, ekologija, otpadne vode, hemijska potrošnja kiseonika.

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Gordana Petrović,  Mimica Stefanović,  Milica  Rančić*,   Milenko Mirić,  Ivana Gavrilović-Grmuša

Univerzitet u Beogradu, Šumarski fakultet, Beograd, Srbija

Naučni rad
ISSN 0351-9465, E-ISSN 2466-2585
UDC: 633.872: [632.952+582.632.1]
doi: 10.5937/zasmat2001069P

Zastita Materijala 61 (1)
69 – 76  (2020)

 

 

Antifungal activity of grey alder bark extractives against wood rotting fungi

Abstract

The effect of the treatment of beech tree (Fagus sylvatica ssp. Moesiaca) with grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench)  bark extractives on the improvement of its natural resistance against two rot fungi: Trametes versicolor, causative agent of white rot and Coniophora puteana, the cause of the brown rot of the tree, is investigated in this paper in laboratory conditions. Four types of extractives were used: ethyl acetate (A), ether (B), ethanol (C) and aqueous (D), obtained by ultrasonic extraction (UZE) and prepared at three concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mg/ml in methanol as a solvent. The results of the study show that the highest  antifungal efficiency was obtained using ethyl acetate extract at a concentration of 2.0 mg/ml. Grey alder bark extract can be a potentially environmentally friendly tool in preventing the protection of deciduous wood along with further research.

Keywords: Extractives, Alnus incana, Trametes versicolor, Coniophora puteana, Fagus sylvatica ssp. moesiaca, natural resistence, weight loss.

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Uticaj ekstraktiva kore bele jove na otpornost drveta bukve prema gljivama truležnicama

Izvod

U ovom radu je ispitan uticaj tretmana drveta bukve (Fagus sylvatica ssp. moesiaca) ekstraktivima kore drveta bele jove (Alnus incana (L.) Moench) na poboljšanje njegove prirodne otpornosti prema dve gljive truležnice: Trametes versicolor – izazivača bele truleži i Coniophora puteana – izazivača mrke truleži drveta, u laboratorijskim uslovima. Korišćena su 4 tipa ekstraktiva: etil-acetatni (A), etarski (B), etanolni (C) i vodeni (D), dobijeni ultrazvučnom ekstrakcijom (UZE) I pripremljeni u 3 koncentracije 0,5, 1,0 i 2,0 mg/ml u metanolu kao rastvaraču. Rezultati istraživanja pokazuju da je najveću antifungalnu efikasnost pokazao etil-acetatni ekstraktiv u koncentraciji 2,0 mg/ml. Ekstraktiv kore bele jove može predstavljati potencijalno ekološki prihvatljivo sredstvo u preventivnoj zaštiti drveta od truležnica uz sprovođenje daljih istraživanja.

Ključne reči: Ekstraktivi, Alnus incana, Trametes versicolor, Coniophora puteana, Fagus sylvatica ssp. moesiaca, prirodna otpornost, gubitak mase.

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